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Greater than 40 years in the past it was once tested that the African continent might be divided into 4 precise language households. examine on African languages has for that reason been preoccupied with reconstructing and realizing similarities throughout those households. This has intended that an curiosity in different kinds of linguistic courting, akin to no matter if structural similarities and dissimilarities between African languages are the results of touch among those languages, hasn't ever been the topic of significant learn. This publication exhibits that such similarities throughout African languages are extra universal than is broadly believed. It presents a wide point of view on Africa as a linguistic sector, in addition to an research of particular linguistic areas. to be able to have a greater knowing of African languages, their buildings, and their background, additional info on those contact-induced relationships is vital to figuring out Africa's linguistic geography, and to reconstructing its background and prehistory.

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In Western Nilotic languages equivalent to Shilluk, Nuer, and Dinka, ATR ameliorations are usually bolstered, supplemented or changed through voice caliber adjustments similar to ‘‘breathy’’ vs. ‘‘creaky. ’’ inside this extensive area there are components the place such structures are much less universal: such a lot Atlantic languages japanese Kwa (notably the Gbe languages) Defoid (Yoruba, Itsekiri) so much Idomoid (except Igede), Platoid, Jukunoid, northern Bantoid southern Grassfields Bantu and northwestern Bantu languages (zones A–D) Adamawa-Ubangi, other than the Zande workforce (Azande has a procedure such as that of Nande as defined above other than that vowel elevating is non-neutralizing in excessive vowels in addition to mid, Tucker & Hackett 1959). 2H platforms develop into much less common towards the north (northern Mande, Fulfulde, Songay, Dogon, Chadic), the northeast (where the infrequent 2H platforms contain the Kordofanian languages Jomang and Tima and several other East Sudanic languages together with Tama, Tabi, Nyimang, and Temein), and the a long way east, the place infrequent 2H platforms contain Hamer (Omotic) and strikingly, Somali (Cushitic) with thor- oughgoing ATR concord. Bantu 2H platforms may be mentioned under. This scattered development has given upward thrust to a still-unresolved debate no matter if 2H vowel structures with ATR vowel concord are derived from a 2H-2M proto- process /i u I U e o O 2 a/ in Niger-Congo, with losses in separate components as a result of the merger of 1 or extra of the marked vowels /I U 2/ with their less-marked friends (Williamson 1983–4), or from a less complicated 2H–1M or 1H–2M method with a fourth top sequence coming up by means of diffusion or inner swap. In a few circumstances, solid arguments for the latter view could be made. hence, Przezdziecki (2005) provides persuasive facts that an leading edge sequence of [ATR] excessive vowels developed in Akure Yoruba out of a extra commonplace 1H–2M number of Yoruba missing ATR concord because of phonetically prompted inner swap. Dimmendaal (2001a) studies a few instances within which ATR concord seems to have developed through diffusion. An instance is the Chadic language Tangale, whose ATR concord procedure is anomalous inside Chadic languages yet might be plausibly defined by way of long term touch with neighboring Benue- Congo languages. Africa as a phonological region fifty three open air Africa, 2H vowel inventories (and vowel concord platforms established upon them) are infrequent, other than while followed by means of size transformations as in English. Vowel concord platforms corresponding to African ATR structures were defined in Nez Perce (Penutian, North America), Khalkha Mongolian (Altaic), and several other languages of northeast Asia together with Chukot/Chukchi (Chukotko-Kamchatkan) and the Manchu-Tungus languages (Altaic). How- ever, those platforms frequently have opposite polarity within which tongue-root retraction acts because the dominant price, and may be greater considered as RTR (retracted tongue root) platforms. three. 2. 6. 2 Bantu vowel concord ATR concord is absent within the nice majority of Bantu languages, the place as a substitute we discover a rather varied form of vowel concord, which back seems to be exact to Africa.

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