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By Christian Rätsch

The main finished advisor to the botany, heritage, distribution, and cultivation of all identified psychoactive plants

• Examines 414 psychoactive vegetation and similar substances

• Explores how utilizing psychoactive vegetation in a culturally sanctioned context can produce vital insights into the character of reality

• Contains 797 colour pictures and 645 black-and-white illustrations

In the traditions of each tradition, crops were hugely valued for his or her nourishing, therapeutic, and transformative houses. the main robust plants--those recognized to move the human brain into different dimensions of consciousness--have characteristically been considered as sacred. In The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Plants Christian R䴳ch info the botany, heritage, distribution, cultivation, and instruction and dosage of greater than four hundred psychoactive vegetation. He discusses their ritual and medicinal utilization, cultural artifacts made up of those vegetation, and artistic endeavors that both characterize or were encouraged by means of them. the writer starts off with 168 of the main recognized psychoactives--such as hashish, datura, and papaver--then provides 133 lesser recognized ingredients in addition to extra crops referred to as “legal highs,” vegetation identified purely from mythological contexts and literature, and plant items that come with elements equivalent to ayahuasca, incense, and soma. The textual content is lavishly illustrated with 797 colour photographs--many of that are from the author’s vast fieldwork round the world--showing the folks, ceremonies, and paintings on the topic of the ritual use of the world’s sacred psychoactives.

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1980. The ethnobotany of candy flag between North American Indians. Botanical Museum Leaflets 28 (3): 235-46. Motley, Timothy J. 1994. The ethnobotany of candy flag, Acorus calamus (Araceae). financial Botany forty eight (4): 397-412. (Very stable bibliography. ) Samorini, Giorgio, and Francesco Festi. 1995. Acorus calamus L. (calamon aromatico). Eleusis 1:33—36. Speck, Frank G. 1917. drugs practices of the northeastern Algonquians. In lawsuits of the 19th foreign Congress of Americanists (Washington, D. C. ): 303-21. Vohora, S. B. , Shaukat A. Shah, and P. C. Dandiya. 1990. valuable worried process experiences on an ethanol extract of Acorus calamus rhizomes. magazine ofEthnopharmacology 28:53—62. Whitman, Walt. 1900. Leaves of grass. Philadelphia: David McKay. Agave spp. Agaves, Mezcal crops relations Agavaceae (Century Plant relatives; Zander 1994, 95*), formerly Liliaceae (Lily family members) varieties and Subspecies There are nearly 136 species within the genus Agave in Mexico and neighboring areas (Gentry 1982). a few of the higher species are ethnobotanically and ethnopharmacologically major. Species utilized in the manufacture of fermented drinks (pulque, sugui, tesgilino, tizwin, mesagoli) and distilled spirits (tequila, mescal, pisto): Agave americana L. (century plant, teometl, mescale) Agave americana L. var. expansa (Jacobi) Gentry (mescal maguey) Agave asperimma Jacobi Agave atrovirens Karw. ex Salm. (maguey, metl, tlacametl) Agave bocicornuta Gentry (mescal luchuguilla, sa'puli) Agave cerulata Trel. ssp. dentiens (Trel. ) Gentry Agave durangensis Gentry Agave ferox Koch (maguey) Agave hookeri Jacobi Agave latissima Jacobi [syn. Agave macroculmis Tod. , A. coccinea hort. non Roezl ex Jacobi] Agave mapisaga Trel. (maguey manso, maguey mapisaga) Agave mescal Koch (mescal agave) Agave multifilifera Gentry (chahui) Agave pacifica Trel. (mescal del monte, mescal casero, gusime) Agave palmeri Engelm. Agave parryi Engelm. Agavepolianthiflora Gentry (ri'yechili) Agave potatorum Zucc. [syn. Agave scolymus Karw. ] (tlacametl) Agave potatorum Zucc. var. verschaffeltii (Lem. ) Berger [syn. Agave verschaffeltii Lem. ] (tlacametl) Agave rhodacantha Trel. Agave salmiana Otto ex Salm-Dyck [syn. Agave atrovirens Karw. var. salmiana (Otto ex SD. ) Trel. , Agave atrovirens Trel. and "of authors" (Gentry 1982, 13)] (maguey de pulque, tlacametl) Agave shrevei Gentry (mescal bianco, o'tosa) Agave tequilana Weber (tequila agave, maguey, blue agave) Agave tequilana Weber cv. Azul ("blue variety") Agave vivipara L. [syn. Agave angustifolia Haw. ] (babki, mescal de maguey) Agave weberi Gels Agave wocomahi Gentry (mescal verde, ojcome, pine maguey) Agave zebra Gentry For libers, medicinal drugs, and sacrificial thorns (pencas): Agave americana L. Agave sisalana Perrine (henequen, sisal agave, kih) Agave fourcroydes Lem. [syn. Agave ixtlioides Lem. ] (henequen agave) people Names Agave, century plant, chupalla, henequen, maguei, maguey, mescal plant, meskalpflanze, metl, mezcal plant, pita For the fermented juice: Agave wine, iztac octli, mesagoli, mescal beer, metl, octli, pulque, sugui, tesgiiino, tizwin, vino mescal, wine For the distilled liquor: Agave schnapps, mescal, mezcal, pisto, tequila, tuche (Huichol), vino mescal background Roasted is still of agaves, dated to nearly 8,000 years in the past, were recovered from the caves of Tehuacan (Mexico) (Wolters 1996, 28*).

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